Monitor BIND DNS with dnstop

De Wiki do Bernardino
Ir para: navegação, pesquisa

dnstop: Monitor BIND DNS Server (DNS Network Traffic) From a Shell Prompt

by Vivek Gite on August 4, 2008 · 8 comments· last updated at January 8, 2009

Q. How do I monitor my Bind 9 named (or any other dns server) server traffic / network traffic under Linux? How do I find out and view current DNS queries such as A, MX, PTR and so on in real time? How do I find out who is querying my DNS server or specific domain or specific dns client IP address?

A. Log file can give out required information but dnstop is just like top command for monitoring dns traffic. It is a small tool to listen on device or to parse the file savefile and collect and print statistics on the local network's DNS traffic. You must have read access to /dev/bpf*. bpf (Berkeley Packet Filter) which provides a raw interface to data link layers in a protocol independent fashion. All packets on the network, even those destined for other hosts, are accessible through this mechanism.

dnstop can either read packets from the live capture device, or from a tcpdump savefile. Install dnstop

Type the following command to install dnstop under Debian / Ubuntu Linux: $ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get install dnstop A note about Red Hat / CentOS / RHEL / Fedora Linux

Install latest version using make command (see below for for binary RPM file). First, grab latest source code by visiting official dnstop website.

First install required development libs, enter:

  1. yum install libpcap-devel ncurses-devel

Now, grab latest source code using wget command, enter:

  1. cd /tmp
  2. wget http://dns.measurement-factory.com/tools/dnstop/src/dnstop-20080502.tar.gz
  3. tar -zxvf dnstop-20080502.tar.gz
  4. cd dnstop-20080502

Compile and install dnstop, enter:

  1. ./configure
  2. make
  3. make install

dnstop rpm file

Alternatively, you can download dnstop rpm from dag's repo for RHEL / CentOS / Fedora Linux. dnstop under FreeBSD

If you are using FreeBSD, follow these installation instructions. Monitor Dns Server

You can monitor various dns data and queries using command line options. How do I view dns traffic with dnstop?

Simply, type the following command at a shell prompt to monitor traffic for eth0 interface:

  1. dnstop {interface-name}
  2. dnstop eth0
  3. dnstop em0

Sample output:

2 new queries, 220 total queries Mon Aug 4 05:56:50 2008 Sources count  %


--------- ------

180.248.xxx.26 72 32.7 77.89.xx.108 7 3.2 186.xxx.13.108 5 2.3 90.xxx.94.39 4 1.8 178.xx.77.83 4 1.8 187.xxx.149.23 4 1.8 xxx.13.249.70 4 1.8 1.xxx.169.102 4 1.8 189.xx.191.126 4 1.8 xxx.239.194.97 3 1.4

You can force dnstop to keep counts on names up to level domain name levels by using the -l {level} option. For example, with -l 2 (the default), dnstop will keep two tables: one with top-level domain names (such as .com, .org, .biz etc), and another with second level domain names (such as co.in, col.uk).

  1. dnstop -l 3 eth0

Under Debian / Ubuntu Linux, enter:

  1. dnstop -t -s eth0

Where,

   -s Track second level domains
   -t Track third level domains

Please note that increasing the level provides more details, but also requires more memory and CPU to keep track of DNS traffic. How do I exit or reset counters?

To exit the dnstop, hit ^X (hold [CTRL] key and press X). Press ^R to reset the counters. How do find out TLD generating maximum traffic?

While running dnstop, hit 1 key to view first level query names (TLDs):

5 new queries, 1525 total queries Mon Aug 4 06:11:09 2008 TLD count  %


--------- ------

net 520 34.1 biz 502 32.9 in-addr.arpa 454 29.8 in 23 1.5 org 15 1.0 com 11 0.7

Look like this DNS server is serving more .net TLDs. You can also find out more about actual domain name by hinting 2 key while running dnstop:

3 new queries, 1640 total queries Mon Aug 4 06:13:20 2008 SLD count  %


--------- ------

cyberciti.biz 557 34.0 nixcraft.net 556 33.9 74.in-addr.arpa 34 2.1 208.in-addr.arpa 29 1.8 195.in-addr.arpa 28 1.7 192.in-addr.arpa 27 1.6 64.in-addr.arpa 27 1.6 theos.in 23 1.4 203.in-addr.arpa 20 1.2 202.in-addr.arpa 18 1.1 212.in-addr.arpa 15 0.9 nixcraft.com 13 0.8 217.in-addr.arpa 13 0.8 213.in-addr.arpa 12 0.7 128.in-addr.arpa 12 0.7 193.in-addr.arpa 12 0.7 simplyguide.org 12 0.7 cricketnow.in 3 0.2

To find out 3 level domain, hit 3 key:

www.cyberciti.biz 60 39.0 figs.cyberciti.biz 33 21.4 ns1.nixcraft.net 18 11.7 ns3.nixcraft.net 13 8.4 ns2.nixcraft.net 13 8.4 theos.in 5 3.2 nixcraft.com 5 3.2 cyberciti.biz 2 1.3 jobs.cyberciti.biz 1 0.6 bash.cyberciti.biz 1 0.6

How do I display the breakdown of query types seen?

You can easily find out most requested, query type (A, AAAA, PTR etc) by hinting t key

Query Type Count  %


--------- ------

A? 224 56.7 AAAA? 142 35.9 A6? 29 7.3

How do I find out who is connecting to my DNS server?

Hit d to view dns client IP address:

Source Query Name Count  %


------------- --------- ------

xx.75.164.90 nixcraft.net 20 9.1 xx.75.164.90 cyberciti.biz 18 9.1 x.68.25.4 nixcraft.net 9 9.1 xxx.131.0.10 cyberciti.biz 5 4.5 xx.104.200.202 cyberciti.biz 4 4.5 202.xxx.0.2 cyberciti.biz 1 4.5

Option help

There many more option to provide detailed view of current, traffic, just type ? to view help for all run time options:

s - Sources list
d - Destinations list
t - Query types
o - Opcodes
r - Rcodes
1 - 1st level Query Names      ! - with Sources
2 - 2nd level Query Names      @ - with Sources
3 - 3rd level Query Names      # - with Sources
4 - 4th level Query Names      $ - with Sources
5 - 5th level Query Names      % - with Sources
6 - 6th level Query Names      ^ - with Sources
7 - 7th level Query Names      & - with Sources
8 - 8th level Query Names      * - with Sources
9 - 9th level Query Names      ( - with Sources

^R - Reset counters ^X - Exit

? - this

Further readings:

   man dnstop
   dnstop project home page

Fonte: [1]